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Environmentally Relevant Exposures of Nano-materials


David Hinton, Duke University 

Realistically, considering all life stages, fish have various routes of exposure to a variety of aquatic contaminants. For early life stages, exposure may have come from the parent and depending upon the site for egg and larval development, additional exposure may occur via water. Adult life forms may feed upon contaminated food organisms or take up materials over the gills or other surficial tissues.